Probably the most important result was that low levels
of SO2 act as a nitrogenous fertiliser due to co-deposition of ammonia
gas as ammonium sulphate. (Nothing is really new - in London's killer
smogs hospitals knew to keep a bottle of ammonia in each ward to neutralise
the sulphurous pollution).
|We also got unexpected tipburn, visible injury to some (c. 10%) of the scots pines. This turned out to be related to the mean SO2 level during the first couple of days after the needles burst from their buds in early May.|
Despite much effort, we found no effect on any pollution treatments on the ectomycorrhizal fungi at the site. For more on these fungi see my page about their successional changes.
Shaw, PJA (2000). The Acid tests. Innogy publications. ISBN: 0 9517172 5 1.
Brierley EDR, Shaw PJA & Wood M (2001). Nitrogen cycling and proton fluxes in an acid forest soil. Plant & Soil 229, 83-96.
Brierley EDR, Wood M & Shaw PJA (2001). Influence of tree species and ground vegetation on nitrification in an acid forest soil. Plant & Soil 229, 97-104.
Shaw, P.J.A. & McLeod, A.R. (1995). The effects of SO2 and O3 on
the foliar nutrition of Scots
pine, Norway spruce and Sitka spruce in the Liphook open-air fumigation experiment.
Plant, Cell and Environment 18 237-245.
Holland MR, Mueller, P.W., Rutter, A.J., & Shaw, P.J.A. (1995).
Growth of coniferous forest
trees exposed to SO2 and O3 using an open air fumigation system. Plant Cell and
Environment 18 227-236.
Shaw, P.J.A. & Lankey, K. (1994) Studies on the Scots pine
mycorrhizal fruitbody succession.
The Mycologist 8, 172-175.
Shaw, P.J.A. (1993). Studies on the mycorrhizal community infecting
trees in the Liphook forest
fumigation experiment. Agriculture, ecosystems and environment, 47, 185-191.
Shaw, P.J.A. and Johnston, J.P.N. (1993). Effects of SO2 and O3
on the chemistry and FDA
activity of coniferous leaf litter in an open air fumigation experiment. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry 25 897-908.
Shaw, P.J.A., Holland, M.R., Darrell, N.M. & McLeod A.R. (1993).
The occurrence of SO2-related foliar symptoms on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in an open air fumigation experiment. New Phytologist 123 143-152.
McLeod, A.R., Shaw, P.J.A. & Holland, M.R. (1992). The Liphook forest fumigation project: studies of sulphur dioxide and ozone effects on coniferous trees. Forest Ecology and Management 51, 121-127.
Shaw, P.J.A., Dighton, J. and Poskitt, J. (1992). Studies on the effects of SO2 and O3 on the mycorrhizal succession under Scots pine and Norway spruce as observed above and below ground. Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems (Eds. DJ Read, DH Lewis and IJ Alexander), pp. 208-213.
Shaw, P.J.A., Dighton, J., Poskitt, J. and McLeod, A.R. (1992)
The effects of sulphur dioxide and ozone on the mycorrhizas of Scots pine
and Norway spruce in a field fumigation system. Mycological Research
McLeod, A.R., Holland, M.R., Shaw, P.J.A., Sutherland, P.M., Darrall,
N.M. and Skeffington,
R.A. (1990). Enhancement of nitrogen deposition to forest trees exposed to SO2. Nature
347, 277 - 279.
Shaw, P.J.A. (1988). The Liphook Forest Fumigation Experiment.
In Acid Rain and Britain's
Natural Ecosystems (Eds. M.R. Ashmore, J.N.B. Bell and C. Garrety) p. 127.
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